Cryptography (or cryptology; from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, “hidden, secret”; and γράφειν graphein, “writing”, or -λογία -logia, “study”, respectively) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties (called adversaries). More generally, it is about constructing and analyzing protocols that block adversaries; various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.


Wassenaar Arrangement / COCOM

1. Export/ import controls


COCOM (Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls) was an international organization for the mutual control of the export of strategic products and technical data from country members to proscribed destinations. It maintained, among others, the International Industrial List and the International Munitions List. In 1991, COCOM decided to allow export of mass-market cryptographic software (including public domain software). Most member countries of COCOM followed its regulations, but the United States maintained separate regulations.


OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)

The OECD released its Recommendation of the Council concerning Guidelines for Cryptography Policy on 27 March 1997. The guidelines are non-binding recommendations to Member governments, meaning that they will not be part of international law. The Guidelines provide principles which states should take into account and balance in developing a national crypto policy.